Friday, November 6th
All events are held virtually via Zoom.
(Welcome, Opening Remarks, and Keynote Address)
7:00 – 7:10 PM
Peter Mark Jansson
Professor of Electrical Engineering
Faculty Director, Center for Sustainability
& the Environment
7:10 – 7:25 PM
7:25 – 7:30 PM
Director, Watershed Sciences & Engineering Program, Center for Sustainability
& the Environment
7:30 – 8:00 PM
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources (PA DCNR)
Poster Session #1
Biology, Water Chemistry and Community Health
8:00 – 9:00 PM
Stowe, E.; Beke, A.; and Zhao, J.
Bacterial Diversity of the Susquehanna River at Bucknell Landing
The microbiome of the Susquehanna River is largely neglected in the scientific literature. In the last decade our lab has been exploring the metabolic diversity of bacteria in the Susquehanna and other local water systems using traditional microbiological as well as genomic and metagenomic techniques. Our first analyses focused on the cyanobacterial community and found great diversity in this group. Pseudanbaena sp SR411 and sp. Roaring Creek were isolated from the Susquehanna River and Roaring Creek reservoir, respectively and are filamentous, nonheterocystous cyanobacteria that exhibit chromatic acclimation. Subsequent microbiological and genomic characterization indicate that, though similar in some respects, they differed in the ability to fix nitrogen. SR411 has the genes encoding nitrogenase while sp. Roaring Creek does not. The identification of a potential nitrogen fixing bacteria in the Susquehanna River has lead us to look for additional, non-photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing bacteria in the river. Using culture based techniques we have isolated and begun characterization of 10 putative nitrogen fixing bacteria, three of which have been sequenced. Here we present preliminary analysis of these genomes.
Streeter, K. and Hawley Matlaga, T.J.;
A Long-term Study of Salamander Populations in the Susquehanna River Valley
Amphibians have many biological characteristics that make them sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, particularly climate change. These characteristics allow researchers to use amphibians as indicators of environmental change and explore ways to mitigate adverse effects. The eastern red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, can be used as a model organism in understanding the effects of a changing environment as it is abundant and widely distributed. Following systematic methods of SPARCnet, the Salamander Population and Adaptation Research Collaboration Network, we are investigating the population dynamics of P. cinerus in Selinsgrove, PA. We set up three mark-recapture plots, each containing 50 coverboards, in an area of known salamander presence. During each sampling event, we record soil and air temperature, as well as relative humidity. We measure the size and determine the sex of each salamander and mark each uniquely using visual implant elastomer. We describe our results from sampling events in Fall 2020 including the sex and size distributions of individuals found in the three plots. This long-term research will allow us to gain a comprehensive understanding of the population demographics, such as growth, survival, and movement of individuals over time. Results will contribute to the research network database and will be used to examine demographic patterns of the species across its range. We expect these efforts to lead to a better ability to predict the consequences of climate change and more effective management techniques.
Ryan, S. and Holt, J.
Preliminary results from a study of the impact of Walker Lake on the North Branch of Middle Creek using metrics generated by diatom biofilm communities
Middle Creek is a tributary of the main stem of the Susquehanna River, and its watershed is confined mostly to Snyder County. The upper reaches of the stream are defined by two major branches, the North Branch and the West Branch, each of which is interrupted by a reservoir, Walker Lake and Faylor Lake, respectively. Walker Lake is an impoundment of a deep V-shaped valley and is 9-10 meters deep at the dam, which allows it to be stratified in the summer and winter. Summer stratification produces an anoxic hypolimnion, which is drawn off by the bottom outflow dam into the North Branch. During September of 2019 and 2020, the hypolimnion of Walker Lake became anoxic and its outflow below the dam had a strong odor of hydrogen sulfide and deposits of iron (III) oxide-hydroxide covered the cobbles and small boulders. The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore the impact of the bottom outflow below the dam and at sample sites downstream before and after fall turnover on the diatom biofilm communities and use them as proxies for the state of the stream. We examined four sites on the North Branch: above the lake (1.5 km above the lake), Walker Lake, below the dam at its outflow, and a site 1.2 km downstream called Old Bridge. Field measurements with a YSI 556 multimeter of pH, conductivity, and % oxygen saturation showed clear impacts when the lake was stratified but began to moderate following fall turnover. The loss of alkalinity and conductivity were particularly noticeable. The alkalinity decreased by 35% between the above site (2,350 µeq/L) and below the dam (1,514.4 µeq). Before turnover, at the below site, biofilm diatoms were scarcely found such that the phytoplankter, Asterionella formosa, which had been flushed from the lake, was the most abundant diatom species encountered from the stones collected at the site. Following turnover, however, the biofilm community reestablished itself and was dominated by Achnanthidium minutissumum in November 2019. Preliminary metrics based on diatom community analysis before and after turnover suggest that the above lake site was impaired by agriculture (indices indicating high levels of sedimentation and nutrient runoff), but the reservoir did not function as a sediment or nutrient trap. Instead, the downstream sites showed higher impairment than the above lake site.
Daniels, E.; Boyette, H.; Roides, L.; Ebert, S.; and Duke, L.D.
Temporal and Spatial Variability of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Southwest Florida Tidal Streams
In the U.S., surface water is subject to regulatory limits for fecal indicator bacteria (FIBs) including fecal coliforms, e. coli, and Enterococci, which serve as indicators of possible contamination with human wastes and the negative health effects that can accompany it. Data from 20 years of sampling show that, among other waterbodies, tidal streams in urbanized parts of Southwest Florida have repeatedly, and by large magnitudes, exceeded the federal standards for both Enterococci (30 MPN/100mL geometric mean [GM] and 130 MPN/100mL Ten Percent Threshold Value [TPTV]) and e. coli (70 MPN/100mL GM and 410 MPN/100mL TPTV) in three target streams: Estero River, Spring Creek, and Imperial River.
This research conducted a small number of sample events (3 to 8 times over one year) on a fine spatial resolution (more than one sample per linear kilometer on three 8-km stream reaches.. Results were, as expected, not able to identify or compensate for variations – especially varying tides, flows, storm events, and human activities – but showed surprisingly strong ability to document differing pollutant tendencies in different portions of each reach. Upstream reaches of Estero River extending beyond residential development, and routinely showed very small FIB concentration, while, upstream reaches of Spring Creek and Imperial River, more densely developed, routinely had very high FIB concentration, documenting that human land use affects FIBs more powerfully than other potential source (sediments, soils, non-human animals, etc). Two reaches of Estero River near privately-operated small wastewater treatment plants showed higher concentrations in nearly every sample, documenting those as sources of particular concern. In all three streams FIBs were in high concentration near the mouth, suggesting that resuspension of estuarine sediments and/or inland movement of estuarine waters influence bacteria concentrations, a mechanism for future research to target.
Dempsey, C.; Beaumont, A.; Pepple, E.; Bobnar, L.; Keeports, C.; and Hayes, B.
Pre-restoration summary of organic matter content in Little Arnot Creek, Allegheny National Forest
Many small streams in Pennsylvania have become incised due to human activity. This channel deepening has led to a myriad of issues including stream bank erosion and increased discharge during storm events. Headwater streams serve as a critical link between terrestrial and downstream ecosystems in transporting organic material. Both dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) play a role in the global carbon cycle and serve as an energy source for aquatic heterotrophic bacteria. In the Allegheny National Forest, we are implementing adaptive management strategies on Little Arnot Creek to document changes in organic material. These improvements include the placement of whole trees (with canopy and rootwad), as well as logs in the stream and floodplain. Restoration work is scheduled to begin in the summer of 2021. The goals of the project are to slow the movement of water, raise the water table, disperse more water onto the floodplain, and to increase the storage capacity of organic material within the watershed. We have collected replicate water samples monthly since September 2019 to assess baseline conditions of DOC and POC concentration and DOC quality (absorbance and fluorescence). Water samples are collected by hand at six permanent stations on Little Arnot Creek. We also collect water from a two stations within Cherry Run (control stream). Preliminary data suggests the DOC concentration and quality vary seasonally and that POC concentrations are low.
Seernaumet, N. and Zimmerman, M.
Coliform Trends in Urban Streams receiving Stormwater within Lycoming County MS4
The Clean Water Institute at Lycoming College has been conducting field and laboratory analysis on the urban streams of Lycoming County MS4 region since 2015. The County MS4 includes 9 municipalities/boroughs. Over 200 stormwater outfalls empty into 8 urban streams (Grafius Run, McClure Run, Millers Run, Bull Run, Mill Creek, Tules Run, Mosquito Creek and Hagermans Run) plus Lycoming Creek, Loyalsock Creek and the West Branch Susquehanna River. Quarterly and in some cases monthly samples for chemical analysis ( pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved Oxygen (DO), conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids(TDS), nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, total phosphorus ) as well as coliforms have been collected from 1-3 sites within 8 urban streams for two years. Membrane filtration was specifically carried out on the water samples to identify the presence of E.coli in them. Fecal contamination may be an indicator of sewage input. This paper provides the trend in coliform count over the years since 2017. The examination of data trends serve as a baseline to be used to implement projects that seek to improve the water quality of the urban streams of Lycoming County MS4 region.
Berzonsky, M; Tasker, T.; Strosnider, W.; Eckenrode, J.; and Hedin, R.
Analyzing the Impact of Mine Drainage Residuals on Phosphorus Sequestration and Agricultural Production
Waterways throughout Appalachia and other areas in the United States are impacted by acid mine drainage. Treatment of mine water often results in large quantities of solids, also known as mine drainage residuals (MDRs), that are typically disposed by burial, landfilling, or pumping back into mine pools. We hypothesize that mine drainage residuals could be beneficially reused in agriculture applications to sorb water extractable phosphorus, potentially increasing the amount of bioavailable phosphorus for crop growth and reducing nutrient runoff to nearby waterways. To test this hypothesis, a greenhouse study was performed to determine if mine drainage residuals could be used to sorb nutrients from dairy manure, reduce nutrient runoff, and improve ryegrass yield. Before the greenhouse study, sorption experiments confirmed that phosphates in manure could sorb onto the mine drainage residuals. Additional leaching experiments are also in progress to determine if the sorbed phosphorus is bioavailable for plant growth. For the greenhouse experiments, varying amounts of mine drainage residuals were mixed with cow manure before application to a nutrient deficient soil. Rye grass was then grown in a greenhouse, harvested and weighed. Treatments included a negative control with no manure, a positive control with manure, manure treated with 12 g/L MDR (low dose) and 60 g/L MDR (high dose). Rye grass yield was monitored in the different treatments for 166 days. The addition of the MDR to the manure, even at the highest rate, had no detrimental impact to rye grass yield. Both MDR and positive control treatments had statistically similar yields but were greater than the yields of the negative control. These results indicate that beneficially reusing MDRs in agriculture could help reduce nutrient runoff without impacting crop yield.
Faull, K.S.; Thompson, S.; and Barnhart, S.
Ready Set Fit and COVID-19: Challenges to Collaborative Community-Engaged Student Research in a Pandemic
This poster discusses how the current public health crisis has affected what has been a productive and innovative collaboration between Bucknell students, faculty, and staff and community leaders in the post-industrial river town, Milton, especially The Improved Milton Experience (TIME). Until the outbreak of the pandemic, Bucknell, DCNR and TIME worked together to develop walking paths in the Milton area that accessed historical and cultural information through mobile technology. By coupling an already existing historical walking tour with a free mobile app (Ready, Set, Fit), residents could walk around the downtown following set paths, learn about its history, and then record their physical activity. Local downtown businesses also agreed to participate in an incentive scheme for walkers, with the initiative being supported by a local hospital. In addition, through collaboration with the Pennsylvania Department of Natural Resources’ (DCNR) “Think Outside” program, a walking route was developed in the Milton State Park, an island which lies a short distance by foot from the downtown.
However, problems with both the goals of the incentive scheme and the sudden curtailing of university support for community-engaged research during the pandemic have thrown challenges in the way of sustained collaboration. How can we respond more agilely to such situations? How can we ensure that collaborations continue? Drawing on prior summer research by a student, Hongyi Wang, into the relationship between incentive schemes and community involvement, this poster investigates the challenges to the incentive program structure pre-pandemic. The poster will then explore the problems encountered by the RSF team during the pandemic and suggest better ways the university can move forward.
Poulsen, M.; Fiedler, A.; DeWalle, J.; Mercer, D., and Schwartz, B.
Factors related to recreational visit frequency to freshwater ‘blue space’ in Pennsylvania: the role of restoration and associations with perceived stress
Spending time in areas with aquatic features (‘blue space’) may benefit health through ‘restoration’ from attentional fatigue and emotional stress. Salutogenic effects of blue space remain underexplored, particularly in non-coastal and non-urban areas, as do correlates of visit frequency to freshwater blue space (FBS). We surveyed adults in 40 small towns in central/northeast Pennsylvania to understand their seasonal visitation patterns to FBS, characteristics that predict visit frequency, and associations between FBS visit frequency and perceived stress. Of 10,000 mailed questionnaires, 1,122 individuals (11%) responded and provided information to characterize FBS visit frequency. Perceived stress was evaluated with a scale of 10 items regarding stressful feelings in the past month. A restoration outcomes scale from FBS was calculated for respondents who reported visiting FBS (n=868). Analyses included multivariate multinomial regression to examine predictors of FBS visit frequency and linear regression to evaluate FBS visit frequency in association with perceived stress, using mixed effects models with a random effect for town of residence to account for spatial clustering. Nearly one-fifth (19%) of respondents reported never visiting FBS, 27% had low visit frequency (1-3 days/season), 35% moderate frequency (4-15 days/season), and 19% high frequency (≥ 16 days/season). Higher education was associated with more frequent blue space visits across all categories of visit frequency. Greater physical activity and living closer to FBS access points were associated with moderate and high visit frequency. High restoration was associated with greater visit frequency among those who visited FBS. Individuals who experienced high restoration were more likely to report the presence of nature as important in enhancing visits to FBS and stress relief as the most important benefit of FBS visits. FBS visit frequency was not associated with perceived stress. Findings highlight the socioeconomic patterning of FBS visits, the importance of access to facilitate visits, and perceived psychological benefits to FBS visits among the most frequent visitors.
Public Perceptions of Brownfields in a Revitalizing Coal Town: A Community-Engaged Course with a COVID-19 Pivot
Environmental justice in coal regions tends to be tied to the active and legacy mining impacts of coal extraction on natural and human communities. However, in Pennsylvania’s anthracite coal mining region, there is a history of diverse industrial land uses in addition to coal extraction. These former industrial sites, often integrated in residential neighborhoods, now create a patchwork of brownfields with varying degrees of contamination. Such sites are both a potential asset (for creative redevelopment) and liability (depending on presence of contamination) for revitalization efforts.
This poster investigates four brownfields in the City of Shamokin – the former Shroyer’s Dress Factory, Eagle Dye Works, Eagle Silk Mill, and Korbich Lumber. In spring of 2020, students in an integrated perspectives course, Changing Place: Politics and Geographies of Environmental Justice, conducted a community research project on these four sites at the invitation of the City. The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a change in the project approach, however, we were still able to conduct survey research on public perceptions of Shamokin, these four brownfields, and what the public believed should be done with them. This poster summarizes key survey findings and reflects on the challenges posed to engaged pedagogy due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Poster Session #2
Watershed Sciences & Sustainability
9:00 – 10:00 PM
Paieda, A. and Elick, J.
A multiphase geomorphic model of island formation in the Susquehanna River
There are over a thousand islands in the Susquehanna River drainage basin that are mapped as Recent to Late Illinoian stratified drift deposits (0 to 198,000 yrs); these islands can be characterized as anthropogenically influenced islands, bedrock islands, recent alluvial channel bar islands, relict braid stream bar features, incised deltaic islands, and incised terrace deposits. This study introduces a multiphase geomorphic model that attempts to describe how some of the islands may have formed over time. We examined aerial images and maps of terraces and islands using Google Earth Pro, GIS data, and historical maps to investigate the influence of storms on terrace incision.
This model involves 5 potential phases which influence Pleistocene terrace deposits from Barton, NY to Lancaster, PA. Phase 1 consists of the initial scouring of floodplain terrace deposits by high discharge, high-magnitude regional storm events (hurricanes, tropical depressions, snow melt events, and northeasters); this produces a temporary stream that drains the terrace. Phase 2 includes incision of the terrace by later storms; intermittent streams continue to erode the floodplain sediments producing permanent channels. Phase 3 involves the river flowing through the eroded channel, detaching a newly formed island from the terrace during normal flow of the river. Phase 4 continues the process, allowing the islands to be subject to stream incision, similar to phase 1. Finally, Phase 5 is characterized by an abundance of midstream islands and the presence of multithread stream flow.
Many islands on the Susquehanna River can be characterized using this multiphase model. With global climate change and increased precipitation predicted for the future, islands may develop faster from terraces or large islands. An improved understanding of fluvial processes may help us better manage property along the floodplain and floodway.
Leininger, S. and Fowler, L.
Creating a Better System: managing stormwater and floods in Pennsylvania
Stormwater and flood water are managed separately in Pennsylvania due to legislation in the 1970s. Already one of the most flood prone states in the U.S., Pennsylvania faces increased flood and stormwater management challenges going forward. Although Pennsylvania has 2,472 communities enrolled in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), 15 communities are suspended from the NFIP – more than any other state – and 43 communities with identified flood hazard areas are not participating at all. Pennsylvania has more than 19,000 miles of impaired rivers and streams, with stormwater being a significant factor. However, Pennsylvania’s stormwater management plans are woefully inadequate. Such plans are supposed to be updated by counties every five years; at this time, only 2 counties are compliant, 30 have not updated their stormwater management plan within five years, and 34 counties do not have a stormwater management plan for the majority of their watersheds if any.
To address how Pennsylvania might better manage these issues going forward, this study analyzed both flood and stormwater laws and implementation at the federal, state, and local level, then compared how these issues are managed by other states. This study offers ideas on how Pennsylvania could create a better flood and stormwater management system to increase compliance, protect people living in flood hazard areas, and reduce the effects of stormwater runoff pollution.
Krauss, Z. and Marcum-Dietrich, N.
Watershed Awareness using Technology and Environmental Research for Sustainability (WATERS)
The Watershed Awareness using Technology and Environmental Research for Sustainability (WATERS) project, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), develops and researches a student-centered, universally accessible curriculum for teaching water concepts & career awareness. Applying Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles, the project increases awareness of, and engagement with, water concepts and career pathways for more learners. The WATERS project focuses on a single, targeted goal: to build, deploy, and research a student-centered, universally accessible curriculum for learning water concepts and water career awareness in order to increase student interest in STEM careers by broadening the population of students who believe they have the ability and skills to pursue STEM careers. This poster explores the research questions and methods that will be used to address these questions along with the timeline for data collection.
Heller, M. and Zimmerman, M.
Wolf Run Restoration Project: Continuation of Monitoring Four Farms Completing BMP’s in Partnership With Lycoming County Conservation District.
The aim of this study is to look at density and diversity of fish surveys since the institution of the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Wolf Run watershed. The TMDL was developed in 2002 because of major impairments seen. Since then, the TMDL has been completed in 2013 by Pennsylvania DEP. In 2015 the Lycoming County Conservation District identified four farm sites for participation in Best Management Practices (BMP) and yearly evaluation. The Clean Water Institute interns this summer were tasked with helping complete the annual fish surveys for the four farm sites. In addition to the fish survey, monthly water chemistry and coliform samplings were collected. Then, the macroinvertebrate samples were completed in October 2020. The fish surveys have been collected since 2017, a year before the project was completed for a base survey. Interpretation of the fish surveys was completed through a program called MicroFish and the Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index. The density of fish found at farm sites 2-4 have gone up an average of 1000 fish per kilometer. The one exception being site 1 (Artley Farm), which saw a slight decrease. The diversity index shows a consistent trend, with some minor fluctuations. Furthermore, an Index of Biological Integrity shows that none of the sites are impaired biologically and are improving since the input of the BMP’s. Site 3 (Fry Farm) is still close to impairment, but is continuing to improve annually. By 2025 it is predicted that these sites will no longer be impaired, and the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment will be extensively lowered with an increase in diversity and density. Finally, Lycoming College CWI will continue to partner and assist on this project.
Mullen, M.; Mullen A.; Ebert, S.; and Duke, L.D.
Role of Constructed Stormwater Detention Ponds vs Natural Systems in Mitigating Flooding from a Suburban University Campus in Southwest Florida
Florida regulations require residential and commercial developments to install stormwater detention ponds, for the purpose of reducing nutrient pollutants in runoff to receiving waters. The 800-acre main campus of Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU), in southwest Florida, mitigates flooding not only with its ponds – 15 designed ponds, of an aggregate 17 acres – but with its 400 acres of open space, most of which contain functioning wetlands.
Stormwater ponds are widely seen by residential communities as providing flood mitigation (Catalo and Duke, 2018), but that is not a stated regulatory purpose and not an appreciable effect: previous research on FGCU ponds quantified a consistent elevation change with rainfall magnitude after dry-season storms (Rodriguez and Duke 2018) but no correlation with short-term precipitation during the wet season, when nearly all of southwest Florida’s potentially-damaging, high-precipitation events occur (Krueger and Duke 2019). This present research continues investigation of surface water elevation and precipitation, adding to the 4-year record of 24-hour interval data with automated sensors collecting data on 10-minute intervals. Quantitative results demonstrate the campus surface water responds differently during each of three stages. During Stage 1, encompassing the dry weather season, most runoff enters the 17 acres of ponds, which have enough capacity to capture all runoff from impervious surfaces. The campus enters Stage 2 when ponds spill over into adjacent wetlands, nearly tripling surface area and vastly increasing capacity to detain runoff: elevation per unit rainfall rose less than half as far as during a comparable rainfall event during dry season. When precipitation ceased, surface elevation declined rapidly during Stage 2, hypothesized to be driven by sorption into newly-hydrated soils and enhanced groundwater recharge from increased wetted surface area. Stage 3 is infrequently activated – when precipitation occurs atop standing water in Stage 2 – and storage increases another order of magnitude as constructed drains direct flow into nearly 300 acres of Stage 3 wetlands. Discharge from the campus, which occupies the top of the Estero River watershed, occurs only when intense precipitation occurs atop fully saturated, high-elevation Stage 3 conditions, as in Hurricane Irma in 2017; essentially zero water left campus during wet seasons in 2019 and 2020.
Conclusions are that surface water elevation rises considerably more per unit precipitation when only FGCU’s ponds are capturing runoff, and less when the wetland storage system is activated. Flooding is mitigated much more effectively by the wetlands than by stormwater detention ponds, as Stage 2 wetland geometry in effect increases storage capacity of individual ponds, while Stage 3 wetlands, intended for habitat preservation, add immense additional detention capacity. The wetlands also produce more rapid water level decline than ponds, so they recover to pre-flood capacity much more quickly than a system of ponds alone.
Udo, V. and Jansson, P.M.
Sustainability at Bucknell: A Local-to-Global Community Learning
Sustainability is the ability of a community to endure and remain resilient socially, technologically and environmentally. A the most local level, a community is a collection of families and globally, a collection of nations. On this local-to-global continuum are institutions, corporations and political units such as states, counties, cities and townships. Governance processes in these communities must recognize contemporary challenges and constraints to deploy appropriate technologies and build infrastructure for local resilience and endurance with global equity. As a community, Bucknell University Strategic Plan for 2025 stipulates the development and implementation of an environmental sustainability plan. This paper presents the process of simultaneously developing and implementing the sustainability plan through four transdisciplinary and cross-functional working groups of students, staff and faculty.
Udo, V.; Jansson, P.M., and Hayes, B.
Ecological Vitality: The Critical Third Leg of Sustainability@Bucknell
Sustainability@Bucknell praxis can be viewed in multidimensions with three critical legs on the tripod of both short- and longer-term resiliency and endurance of the campus community. These three legs are waste reduction, decarbonization and ecological vitality. Ecological vitality deals with natural habitat diversity and overall balance through effective conservation, restoration and protection. These three legs of sustainability are both interrelated and interdependent. An effective management for ecological vitality will results in both waste reduction and decarbonization. Each leg of the sustainability tripod required effective management, leadership and governance processes. At Bucknell, these processes are driven by key stakeholder groups beginning with the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Subcommittee of the Board of Trustees (BOT) to the individual students, faculty, staff and the larger local-to-global Bucknell community. The paper presents the structural and process mechanisms established and implemented to ensure Bucknell’s journey towards ecological vitality through conversation and restoration.
Leveraging the Bucknell Green Fund for a more Sustainable Kinney Natatorium
The Bucknell Green Fund is a revolving loan fund that pays for campus sustainability projects that have economic, environmental and social benefit. The annual cost savings associated with the reduction in resource consumption, revolve back into the Green Fund each year for 10 years, thus making the fund a self-sustaining mechanism to drive sustainability on campus.
Kinney Natatorium is a top rated, high quality, olympic size swimming and diving facility for NCAA division 1 athletes and regional high school competitions. Natatorium operations create a significant environmental footprint as they are intense consumers of energy, used to maintain water and air quality and clarity, 24/7. Additionally, precious, potable water must be continuously consumed and chemically treated and discharged to the municipal wastewater plant for treatment and eventual discharge into the Susquehanna river.
The intent of this abstract is to highlight a demonstration of three Green Fund projects that support triple bottom line facilities management, advancing sustainability at Bucknell University:
(1) Activated glass pool filter media project: superior to sand as a water filtering media, resulting in premium water quality and clarity, lower chloramine levels for swimmers, 50% reduction in chlorine usage and 300,000 gal/yr water savings due to less filter backwashing required.
(2) Sump pump project: a portable pump was regularly used to draw groundwater from beneath the pool floor and sent to the sewer (reducing hydraulic pressure). A permanent pumping system was installed and piped to fill the pool, thus reducing potable water usage by 230,000 gal/yr.
(3) Air quality controls system upgrade: three very large air handlers that heat, cool, ventilate and dehumidify Kinney Natatorium were retrofitted with fan motor VSD’s and a new digital controls system allowing for a synchronous and optimal energy efficient equipment operation, ensuring better, proper pool water evaporation rates, extension of equipment life and an overall better air quality for occupants.
Poster Session #3
Graduate School Opportunities
8:00 – 10:00 PM
Klinger, Thomas Scott
The Masters of Science in Biology at Bloomsburg University
The Master of Science Degree is rapidly becoming the professional working degree in Biology. This degree provides the advanced training in the biological sciences and supporting disciplines which working biologists need. Bloomsburg University is a great choice for graduate school. The Department of Biological and Allied Health Sciences faculty members represent a diverse range of specialties. Every faculty member holds a Ph.D. and has extensive research experience. There are many options for Thesis research projects, as well as for collaboration with local agencies, government institutions, and medical research centers. The M.S. in Biology requires 30 credits of coursework at the graduate level. Advanced courses in biology and appropriate supporting disciplines are selected under the guidance of an Advisory Committee selected by the student from among the appropriate Graduate Faculty. Independent research and professional development under the mentorship of faculty are central components of the Master of Science Program. Under the guidance of their personal Advisory Committee, all students propose scholarly research at the frontier of their area of specialization, conduct independent research producing new insights, and write a manuscript of sufficient scope and quality for publication. In many cases these Theses and other scholarly manuscripts are published and become part of the scientific cannon. Students typically take 1 – 2 years to complete their coursework, research, and program requirements.
Keywords: Graduate Program, Biology